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Donald Bartell is a partner in the law firm of Bartell & Hensel in Riverside, California, and has been in private practice since 1984.

He is on the Board of Directors of the California DUI Lawyers Association, and is a frequent lecturer around California on DUI trial tactics including Lorman's Strategies In Handling DUI Cases seminars. He has been asked to participate in the California DUI Lawyers Association and National College for DUI Defense’s jury research project investigating what arguments resonate with jurors in California drunk driving cases.

Mr. Bartell is a contributing author to James Publishing’s California Drunk Driving Law, and wrote the chapter Defense of Drug Cases in Medical-Legal Aspects of Drugs.

He graduated from the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Notre Dame School of Law. Mr. Bartell is a pilot and frequently flies to California DUI courts.

Don is author of a brand new best seller:

Attacking and Defending Drunk Driving Tests

by Don Bartell and Anne ImObersteg

How to overcome the presumption of guilt in DUI trials

Voir dire strategies, cross-examination questions, and science to help you convince the jury that your DUI case deserves an honest review
Question-by-question and argument-by-argument, Attacking and Supporting Drunk Driving Tests explains how to soften resolute juries by picking apart unyielding police reports and bulletproof lab reports.

These courtroom-proven strategies are supported with understandable science in a coordinated trial attack that will leave the prosecution wondering how its formerly solid case became so weak.

This winning approach to DUI trials is presented step-by-step, and is heavily-supported with pattern arguments, model cross-examinations, case law, science, and motions. The text is filled with helpful suggestions.

More than a test-attack manual
This big book is a complete strategy, law, science, and forms guide containing tactics and arguments found nowhere else. While it focuses on attacking drunk driving tests, it also takes you step-by-step from discovery and investigation through motion practice to trial. It includes:
Pattern motions, with points and authorities
• Suppressing all evidence from a stop for weaving. §18:3
• Suppressing a breath or blood test taken after a PAS test. §18:4
• Challenging a drunk driving checkpoint. §18:7
• Excluding evidence of tolerance. §18:9
• Introducing partition ratio evidence. §18:11
• Denial of choice of test. §18:13
• Limiting the use of the horizontal gaze nystagmus test. §18:15
Proven trial tactics
• What response should you give to a judge who asks during the pretrial conference what is your defense? §20:50
• What formulas should you know before you go to court? §20:31
• Why develop a time line? §20:20
• What question should the defense ask every time there are two police officers testifying in the case? §20:99
• What can you do to minimize the effects of bad facts? §20:60
• How can you have the client testify without the client taking the stand? §20:51
• Where in the trial can the defense give a rebuttal statement? §20:75

Updated annually. ISBN 1-58012-116-0. Book Price: $119
Order it today

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Basic Properties of Alcohol
I. General Points: History and Form
§1:01 History
§1:02 Chemical Structure
§1:03 Industrial/Denatured Alcohol
II. Sources of Alcohol
A. Alcoholic Beverages
1. General Points
§1:10 Basic Processes
§1:11 Sources
2. Fermented Products
§1:20 General Points
§1:21 Wine
§1:22 Rice Wine
§1:23 Ales and Beers
3. Distilled Products
§1:30 General Points
§1:31 Congeners
§1:32 Whiskey
§1:33 Gin
§1:34 Vodka
§1:35 Rum
§1:36 Tequila
§1:37 Brandy
§1:38 Liqueur
B. Alcohol From Alternative Sources
§1:40 General Points
§1:41 Table of Alternative Sources
III. Math and Conversion Factors
§1:50 Proof vs. Percentage
§1:51 Dosage Units
IV. Effects on the Body Systems
§1:60 General Points
§1:61 Blood Constituents
§1:62 The Brain
§1:63 The Heart
§1:64 Gall Bladder
§1:65 Kidneys
§1:66 Liver
§1:67 Lungs
§1:68 Pancreas
§1:69 Stomach
§1:70 Procreation and Childbirth
V. National Concern and Legal Response to Alcohol Use
§1:80 General Points and History
§1:81 The Legislative Response; 0.08% per se
§1:82 Role of the Expert

Chapter 2: Alcohol Absorption, Distribution, Elimination, and Effects
I. Pharmacology and Toxicology of Alcohol
§2:01 Two Subsets Describe Metabolism
§2:02 Pharmacokinetics
§2:03 Pharmacodynamics
II. Pharmacokinetics
A. General Points
§2:10 Circulation Through the Blood Stream
§2:11 Graph of Blood Alcohol Concentration Over Time
B. Absorption
1. Methods of Absorption
§2:20 Primary Method of Absorption
§2:21 Other Methods of Absorption
2. Factors That Affect Absorption
a. Common Factors
§2:30 General Points
§2:31 Food
§2:32 Speed of Ingestion of Alcohol
§2:33 Cigarette Smoking
§2:34 Type and Strength of Alcohol
§2:35 Gender
§2:36 Stomach Diseases
§2:37 Physiological State of the Subject
§2:38 Age
b. Drugs
§2:40 Glycine, Glycylglycine, Glycylglycylglycine and Alanine
§2:41 First-Pass Metabolism: Ibuprofen, Ranitidine, Cimetidine, and Asprin
§2:42 Cholinergic and Adrenergic Drugs
C. Distribution
§2:50 General Distribution System
§2:51 Volume of Distribution: V(d)
§2:52 Arterial vs. Venous Concentration During Absorption and Distribution
§2:53 Distribution in the Body Tissues and Fluids
D. Elimination
1. General Points
§2:60 Elimination by Oxidation
§2:61 Average Elimination Rates
2. Metabolism Kinetics
§2:70 Three Enzyme Systems for Oxidation
§2:71 Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH)
§2:72 The Microsomal Alcohol-Oxidizing System (MEOS)
§2:73 The Catalase System
3. Elimination Kinetics
§2:80 The Widmark Hypothesis
§2:81 The Michaelis-Menten Model
4. Factors That Affect Elimination
§2:90 General Points
§2:91 Food in the Stomach
§2:92 Racial Genetics
§2:93 Fructose
§2:94 Age and Sex
§2:95 Chronic Alcoholism
§2:96 Pathological Factors: Disease
E. Estimating Peak Alcohol Concentration
1. Normal Patterns
§2:100 Over-Simplification Is a Hazard to Estimating
§2:101 Conservative Estimates Are Statistically More Accurate
§2:102 BA Levels Can Change or Plateau
2. Anomalies in BA Concentrations
§2:110 Curve May Fluctuate
§2:111 “Zig-Zag” Effect
§2:112 Inter- and Intra-Subject Variation
III. Pharmacodynamics
A. General Points
§2:120 Drugs Alter Normal Functions
§2:121 Distinction Between Effects and Impairment
§2:122 Response to Effects May Vary
B. Affects of Alcohol
§2:130 Alcohol Affects Many Body Sites
§2:131 BAC vs. Effects Charts
§2:132 Effects Are Progressive and Cumulative
§2:133 Effects on the Brain
§2:134 Impairment Does Not Correlate With BAL
§2:135 Blackouts
C. Factors That Affect Level of Impairment
§2:140 Many Factors Affect Impairment
§2:141 Time of Day
§2:142 Tolerance
§2:143 Acute Tolerance
§2:144 Hangover
§2:145 Environment
§2:146 Performance Enhancement at Low Levels
§2:147 Food
D. Driving Impairment
§2:150 Accident Risk Analysis
§2:151 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Studies
§2:152 Summary

Chapter 3: Legal Standards: Implied Consent
I. Implied Consent
§3:01 Implied Consent to Test Laws Are Upheld
§3:02 Every State Has an Implied Consent Law
II. Constitutional Challenges
A. United States Supreme Court Decisions
§3:10 Unconscious Driver; No Statute
§3:11 Conscious Driver; No Statute
§3:12 Implied Consent Statute
B. State Challenges
§3:20 Due Process
§3:21 Self-Incrimination
§3:22 Illegal Search Cases
III. Successful Attacks
§3:30 Attack Compliance With Procedure
§3:31 Untimely Warning
§3:32 Misinformation in Warning
§3:33 Refusal to Sign Hospital Release Is Not a Lack of Consent
§3:34 Failure to Notify of Intent to Revoke License
§3:35 Delay to Contact Attorney Is Not a Lack of Consent
IV. Delay Tactics
§3:40 Generally Delay Equals Refusal
§3:41 Equivocation Equals Refusal
§3:42 Conditional Consent Equals Refusal
§3:43 Change of Mind After Refusal Equals Refusal

Chapter 4: Search and Seizure: Police Procedures
I. General Points
§4:01 William Pitt Quotation
§4:02 Evaluate the Detention Systematically
§4:03 The Fourth Amendment
II. The Basis for the Stop
A. Reasonable Suspicion of a Violation
§4:10 General Points
§4:11 Did the Officer Personally Observe a Violation?
§4:12 Pretext Stops
§4:13 Weaving Within the Lane
§4:14 Weaving Across the Lanes
§4:15 Driving Too Slowly
§4:16 Equipment Violations
§4:17 Squealing Tires
B. Tipsters
§4:20 Did a Tipster Observe Improper Driving?
§4:21 Anonymous Informants
§4:22 Identified Informants
C. Roadblocks
§4:30 Eliminate Other Reasons for Detention
§4:31 Constitutionality of Checkpoints—Sitz
§4:32 Constitutionality of Checkpoints—Edmond
§4:33 Constitutionality of Checkpoints—Lidster
§4:34 Sample Questioning at Suppression Hearing
D. Community Caretaker Doctrine
§4:40 The Basic Doctrine
§4:41 Implementation of the Doctrine
§4:42 Limiting the Doctrine
III. Maximizing Prospects of Winning
§4:50 File the Motion
§4:51 Focus on the Officer’s Testimony
§4:52 Determine Speed in Feet per Second
§4:53 Know the Statute
§4:54 Remain Positive
§4:55 Checklist for Suppression Motions

Chapter 5: Discovery and Investigation
I. Constitutional Authority for Discovery
§5:01 Federal Constitution Provides Discovery Rights
§5:02 Lead Cases: Brady and Agurs
§5:03 No Duty to Preserve Evidence Unless it Is Exculpatory: Trombetta
§5:04 State Applications in Drunk Driving Cases
II. Sequence and Priorities
§5:10 Investigation First, Discovery Second
§5:11 Planning for Sanctions
§5:12 Traditional Discovery
§5:13 Discover How the Other Side Rates the Case
§5:14 Checklist for Discovery and Investigation
III. Methods of Investigation
§5:20 Administrative Hearings
§5:21 Your Investigator
§5:22 Public Record Requests
§5:23 Depositions in Civil Lawsuits
§5:24 Retesting
IV. The Desired Information
§5:30 General Points
§5:31 Breath Cases
§5:32 Blood and Urine Cases
§5:33 All Cases
V. Discovery by the Prosecution
§5:40 Obligation of Defense to Provide Discovery
§5:41 Make Request Early

Chapter 6: Retaining and Using Experts
I. General Points
§6:01 Hiring an Expert Is an Important Process
§6:02 Checklist for Selecting an Expert
II. Experts for the Prosecution
§6:10 Using the Expert Who Comes With the Case
§6:11 Using a Rebuttal Expert
§6:12 Using an Expert Other Than the Analyst
§6:13 Use a Good Expert
III. The Defense’s Review of the Prosecution’s Expert Choice
§6:20 Determine Why the Expert Was Chosen
§6:21 Be Wary if the Expert Is Not the Analyst
§6:22 Effect of Crawford v. Washington on Hearsay Exceptions
§6:23 Application of Crawford to Blood Alcohol Tests
IV. Defense Experts
§6:30 Finding the Right Expert
§6:31 Educational Background
§6:32 Experience in the field
§6:33 Professional Training
V. Retaining the Expert
§6:40 Finding the Expert
§6:41 Fee Agreements
§6:42 Formality of the Agreements
VI. Preparing the Expert for Trial
§6:50 Sending the Necessary Discovery
§6:51 Reviewing the Case
§6:52 The Golden Rule
§6:53 General Trial Preparation
§6:54 Preparing for Cross-Examination

Chapter 7: Field Sobriety Tests
I. General Points
§7:01 Field Tests Are Less Reliable Than Chemical Tests
§7:02 Value of Field Tests
§7:03 Test Settings and Studies
§7:04 Types of Tests
§7:05 Standardized and Non-Standardized Tests
§7:06 Not All Tests Have Been Studied
II. Studies of Alcohol Use and Tests
A. Studies in Research Settings
§7:10 Environmental and Situational Factors are Controlled
§7:11 Determination of a Baseline
§7:12 Increased Understanding of the Effects of Alcohol
§7:13 Correlation Studies and the Correlation Coefficient
B. Field Studies
1. Driving Behavior
§7:20 Epidemiological Studies
§7:21 Correlation of Driving Behaviors with Alcohol Level
2. Self or Third Party Assessment
§7:30 Self Assessment
§7:31 Clinical Assessment
§7:32 Layman Assessment
3. “Objective” Signs of Intoxication
§7:40 Odor of Alcohol
§7:41 Slurred Speech
§7:42 Red/Watery Eyes
III. Pre-Field Sobriety Test Questioning
§7:50 Tests Are Preceded by Interrogation
§7:51 Check for Impediments
§7:52 Assess Divided Attention Ability
IV. Non-Standard Field Sobriety Tests (Exercises)
A. Romberg Test
§7:60 History and Use
§7:61 Mechanics of the Test
§7:62 Baseline Is Critical
§7:63 Varying Results Show Test Is Unreliable
B. Other Tests
§7:70 Finger to Nose
§7:71 Alphabet, Count Down, and Finger Count Tests
§7:72 Handwriting and Tracing
§7:73 Hand-Pat and Picking up Coins
V. The Standardized Field Sobriety Test Method (SFST)
A. History and Studies
1. Development of Standard Tests
§7:80 NHTSA Commission SCRI Research
§7:81 The 1977 Report
§7:82 The 1981 Report
2. Large-Scale Field Validations
§7:90 The 1983 Study
§7:91 Colorado, Florida, and California Studies
3. Correlation Studies
§7:100 The 1998 Validation Study
§7:101 The 1997 Validation Study
4. Critiques of the Validation Studies
§7:110 Studies Not Peer-Reviewed
§7:111 Officers Do Not Comply With SFST Procedure
§7:112 Nystagmus Measurement Inexact
§7:113 Use of Correlation Coefficients is Misleading
§7:114 California Study Conclusion Is Flawed
§7:115 Officers in Studies More Experienced Than Normal
§7:116 Reliability Claims Are Misleading
§7:117 Age and Weight Not Taken Into Account
§7:118 Clues Were Not Independently Evaluated
§7:119 Comparison to Estimated BAC Is Invalid
B. Administering and Scoring the Tests
1. General Points
§7:130 Three Pre-Arrest Tests
§7:131 Standardization Is Critical
2. Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus
a. Definition and Types of Nystagmus
§7:140 Definition and General Points
§7:141 Types of Nystagmus
b. Causes of Nystagmus
§7:150 Alcohol Metabolites
§7:151 Pathological Disorders and Diseases
§7:152 Medications
§7:153 Circadian Rhythms/Biorhythms
§7:154 Natural End-Point Nystagmus
§7:155 Congenital Nystagmus
§7:156 Fatigue
§7:157 Alcohol
§7:158 Rising or Falling Alcohol Level
c. Measuring Nystagmus
§7:160 Angle of Onset Not a Reliable Indicator
§7:161 Nystagmus at Low Levels
§7:162 Administration of the Test
§7:163 Scoring the Test
3. Walk and Turn
§7:170 Administration of the Test
§7:171 Scoring the Test
4. One Leg Stand
§7:180 Administration of the Test
§7:181 Scoring the Test
C. Evaluating the SFST
§7:190 Lack of Establishment of Normal Performance
§7:191 Using Clues to Indicate a “Failure”
§7:192 SFSTs Do Not Determine Driving Impairment
§7:193 Non-Chemical Tests Have Unreliable Aspects

Chapter 8: Attacking and Defending Field Sobriety Tests and Evaluations
I. Preparation and Investigation
§8:01 Secure the Scene
§8:02 Look for Phone Recordings
§8:03 Check Footwear
§8:04 Find All Witnesses
§8:05 Get the Police Report
§8:06 Get DUI Training Instructions
II. Jury Selection
§8:10 Jurors’ Physical Characteristics
§8:11 Ask About Field Tests
§8:12 Jurors With Specialized Training
III. Attacking Field Sobriety Tests
A. The Legal Standards
§8:20 General Points and Historical Background
§8:21 Daubert & Kumho Tire Admissibility Standards
§8:22 Failure to Comply With NHTSA Criteria
§8:23 The Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus
B. Cross-Examination of the Arresting Officer
1. General Points
§8:30 The First Confrontation
§8:31 Tips for Cross-Examining Police Officers
§8:32 The Phrase “Field Sobriety Tests”
§8:33 The Cross-Contamination Dynamic
2. Objective Factors
§8:40 Clarify That “Objective Factors” Are Subjective
§8:41 Bloodshot Eyes
§8:42 Odor of Alcohol
§8:43 Slurred Speech
§8:44 Flushed Face
3. Field Sobriety Tests
§8:50 Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus
§8:51 The Romberg or Modified Position of Attention Test
§8:52 One Leg Stand
§8:53 Walk the Line
§8:54 The Alphabet Test
C. Maximizing Prospects of Winning
§8:60 Multi-Layered Approach
§8:61 Checklist for Attacking Non-Chemical Sobriety Tests
IV. Defending Field Sobriety Tests
§8:70 Investigate the Scene
§8:71 Promote NHTSA
§8:72 Promote the Officer’s Training
§8:73 Review the Officer’s Instructions
§8:74 Explain Any Second Officer
§8:75 Depersonalize the Case
§8:76 Correlate the Tests to Alcohol Levels
§8:77 Discredit Lay Witnesses

Chapter 9: Blood Alcohol Concentration and Widmark Calculations
I. General Points
§9:01 Mathematical Formulas Estimate BAC
§9:02 Measurement Conversions for Blood Alcohol Concentration
§9:03 Measurement of Dosage Units
II. Predicting BAC With Widmark
A. The Widmark Formula
§9:10 The Need for Widmark Calculations
§9:11 Widmark and His Equation
§9:12 The Formula
§9:13 The b (Beta) Factor
§9:14 The “r” Factor
B. Using Widmark in Cases
§9:20 Questions That Experts Are Frequently Asked
§9:21 Example 1: Maximum BAC
§9:22 Example 2: Maximum BAC Over Certain Time
§9:23 Example 3: BAC at a Future Time
§9:24 Example 4: BAC at Time of Driving
C. Problems Encountered in Calculations
§9:30 Experts Must Maximize Reliability
§9:31 Failure to Consider Variables
§9:32 Changes in “r”
§9:33 Changes in Absorption Rate
§9:34 Changes in Elimination Rate (Widmark b)
III. The NHTSA Equation
§9:40 Modification of Widmark
§9:41 Computing BAC by the NHTSA Equation
§9:42 Comparison to Widmark
IV. Retrograde Extrapolation
§9:50 Definition and Purpose
§9:51 Method of Extrapolation
§9:52 Errors Through Use of “Average” Values
§9:53 Errors Through Uncertainty of the Phase of Metabolism
§9:54 Errors Through Lack of Sufficient Information

Chapter 10: Attacking and Defending Widmark Calculations
I. General Points
A. History and Use of Widmark
§10:01 Professor Widmark’s Treatise
§10:02 Use of Widmark in Trial
B. Widmark and the Per Se Laws
§10:10 Per se Laws Encourage Use of Widmark
§10:11 Examples of per se Statutes
§10:12 Defense Use of Difference in Statutes
II. Attacking Widmark Calculations
A. The Secret to Winning Any Trial
§10:20 Deal With the Predominant Problem
§10:21 Identifying the Predominant Problem
§10:22 Solving the Predominant Problem
B. The Predominant Problem in Drunk Driving Cases
§10:30 Presumption That the Defendant Is Guilty
§10:31 Widmark Calculations and the Predominant Problem
C. Attacking the Calculations
§10:40 Typical Presentation of Widmark Calculations
§10:41 Expose the Charade
§10:42 Ask What the Formula Is
§10:43 Ask Whether the Expert Has Read Widmark
§10:44 The Widmark Variables
§10:45 Cross-Examining on the Widmark Variables
§10:46 Checklist for Attacking Widmark Calculations
D. Widmark Calculations in Breath Cases
§10:50 Calculations Attack Defendant’s Veracity
§10:51 Breath Machine Assumes a Partition Ratio
§10:52 Right to Attack Breath Machine’s Accuracy
III. Defending Widmark Calculations
§10:60 Keep the Presumption of Guilt Alive
§10:61 Consider Not Using Widmark
§10:62 Explain the Widmark Calculations
§10:63 In Breath Cases Avoid Partition Ratios

Chapter 11: Breath Tests
I. Introduction
A. History and Advantages
§11:01 Early Studies of Breath Testing
§11:02 NHTSA Standards
§11:03 Advantages of Breath Testing
§11:04 Outside Factors Affect Breath Testing
B. Physiology
§11:10 The Breathing Process
§11:11 Ventilation
§11:12 Perfusion
§11:13 Henry’s Law
§11:14 Introduction to Breath Testing Technology
C. Screening Test Devices: Scientific Principles
§11:20 Types of Screening Test Devices
§11:21 Differences Between IR and EC Technology
§11:22 Advantages of Screening Test Devices
§11:23 Disadvantages of Screening Test Devices
§11:24 Electrochemical (EC) Devices
§11:25 The Science of Fuel Cells
§11:26 Semiconductor (SC) Devices
§11:27 Infrared (IR) Technology
§11:28 IR Machine Limitations
§11:29 Tyndall Effect in IR Machines
II. Factors Affecting Breath Alcohol Measurements
A. Human/Physiological Factors
1. The Breathing Process
§11:40 Phase of Exhalation
§11:41 Rebreathing and Breathing Ambient Air
§11:42 Breath and Body Temperature
§11:43 Breathing Technique
2. Substances in the Mouth
§11:50 Tongue Piercing and Dental Work
§11:51 Asthma Inhalers
§11:52 Breath Spray and Mouthwashes
§11:53 Food and “Alcohol-Free” Beer
3. Medical Conditions
§11:60 General Points
§11:61 Gastroespohageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
§11:62 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
§11:63 Diabetes
4. Other Factors
§11:70 Phase of Ethanol Metabolism; Post Absorptive State
§11:71 Hematocrit
§11:72 Vasoconstriction
§11:73 Mouth Alcohol/Regurgitation
§11:74 Vital Capacity
B. Instrument Factors
§11:80 The Breath to Blood 2100:1 Conversion
§11:81 RFI/Electromagnetic Interference
§11:82 Specificity
§11:83 Acetone
§11:84 Diethyl Ether
§11:85 Acetaldehyde
§11:86 Methanol, Isopropanol and Other Alcohols
§11:87 Toluene, Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) and Xylene
§11:88 Gasoline
§11:89 Paint and Solvents
§11:90 Machine Precision and Accuracy
C. Administrative Factors
§11:100 Safeguards Are Critical
§11:101 The 15-20 Minute Deprivation Period
§11:102 Use of a Truncated Result
§11:103 Use of Only One Specimen/Duplicate Specimens
§11:104 Use of a Blank
§11:105 Operator Training
III. Machine Characteristics
A. Types of Machines
§11:110 Overview
§11:111 Alco-Sensor®
§11:112 Intoximeter® EC/IR
§11:113 Draeger Alcotest® 7110 MKIII-C
§11:114 Draeger Alcotest® 7410Plus
§11:115 Intoxilyzer 5000
§11:116 BAC DataMaster and DataMaster CDM
§11:117 Miscellaneous Devices
B. Common Machine Issues
§11:120 Capturing Breath Specimens
§11:121 Simulators, Simulator Solutions and Standard Gasses
§11:122 Scientists’ Checklist

Chapter 12: Attacking and Defending Breath Tests
I. General Points
§12:01 Police Prefer Breath Tests
§12:02 Drivers Prefer Breath Tests
II. Attacking Breath Tests
A. General Points
§12:10 Three Categories of Attacks
§12:11 First Line Defenses
§12:12 Second Line Defenses
§12:13 Third Line Defenses
§12:14 The Common Theme
§12:15 Checklist for Attacking Breath Tests
B. First Line Defenses
1. Calibration of the Machine
§12:20 Review Calibration Records
§12:21 Frequency of Certification Varies
§12:22 Distinguish Between Calibrations and Calibration Checks
§12:23 Sample Calibration Check Record
§12:24 Suppressing Tests for Lack of Calibration Check
§12:25 Challenging Perfect Records
§12:26 Cross-Examining on Calibration Checks
2. Administration of the Test
§12:30 Review Test Administration Procedure
§12:31 Operator Must Be Qualified
§12:32 Operator Qualified on a Different Machine
§12:33 Effect of Unqualified Operator
§12:34 Testing Procedures
§12:35 Required Observation Period
§12:36 May Have More Than One Observer
§12:37 The Continuity Requirement for the Observation
§12:38 Failure to Comply With Observation Period
3. Test Assumptions and Averages
§12:40 The 2100 to 1 Partition Ratio
§12:41 Traditional Attack on the Partition Ratio
§12:42 Establishment of Breath Alcohol Level as a New Offense
§12:43 Use the Ratio Attack to Limit Use of the Test
§12:44 Use the Ratio Attack When Prosecution Expert Contradicts Defendant
§12:45 Cross-Examining on Partition Ratio
C. Second Line Defenses
§12:50 Margin of Error
§12:51 Not Specific for Alcohol
§12:52 Falsely High Readings During the Absorptive State
D. Third Line Defenses
§12:60 General Points
§12:61 Radio Frequency Interference
§12:62 Dentures and Dental Work
§12:63 Human Factors
III Defending Breath Tests
§12:70 Do Not Discuss Partition Ratios
§12:71 Know the Testing Regulations
§12:72 Establish That the Machine Was Working
§12:73 Use Impressive Names for the Machine
§12:74 Establish the Operator’s Credentials
§12:75 When the Test Has Problems

Chapter 13: Blood, Urine, and Saliva Tests
I. General Points
§13:01 Alcohol Distributes to All Parts of the Body
§13:02 Impairment Is Based on Blood Alcohol Concentration
§13:03 Whole Blood Is the Best Specimen
§13:04 Alternative Specimens May Have Interpretation Problems
II. Blood Tests
§13:10 Blood Components
§13:11 Plasma and Serum
§13:12 Converting Serum/Plasma Alcohol Concentration
§13:13 Converting Blood Cell Alcohol Concentration
§13:14 Testing Serum
§13:15 Testing Whole Blood
III. Urine as an Alternative Specimen
A. The Sample
§13:20 The Path Into the Urine
§13:21 Excretion of Alcohol
§13:22 Collecting the Sample
B. Converting UAC to BAC
§13:30 Inherent Error
§13:31 Single Sample Ratios
§13:32 Second Sample Ratios
§13:33 The Effect of the Phase of Metabolism
§13:34 The Effect of Diuresis
§13:35 The Effect of BAC
§13:36 The Effect of an Incomplete Void

Chapter 14: Attacking and Defending Blood Tests
I. General Points
§14:01 Blood Tests Are Considered Reliable
§14:02 Blood Tests Are Rarely Challenged
§14:03 Attacking Blood Tests
§14:04 Attacking the Sample
II. The Collection Process
§14:10 General Points
§14:11 Persons Authorized to Draw Blood
§14:12 Preparing the Puncture Site
§14:13 The Blood Draw
§14:14 Mixing the Sample
§14:15 Cross-Examining the Phlebotomist
§14:16 Sample Cross-Examination
§14:17 Track the Amount of the Sample
§14:18 Checklist for Reviewing the Collection Process
III. Chain of Custody
§14:20 Generally Easy to Establish
§14:21 Gaps Go to Weight Rather Than Admissibility
§14:22 Inappropriate Gaps
§14:23 Stipulations to Chain of Custody
§14:24 Peripheral Issues Go to Weight Rather Than Admissibility
IV. Fermentation in the Blood Sample
§14:30 Fermentation Is the Main Attack on Blood Tests
§14:31 Preservation
§14:32 Refrigeration
V. The Blood Alcohol Analysis Process
§14:40 Threshold Determinations
§14:41 Hospital Laboratory Privacy Rights
§14:42 Whole Blood
§14:43 Plasma and Serum
§14:44 Gas Chromatography
VI. Cross-Examination of the Prosecution’s Expert
A. General Points
§14:50 Remember Your Advantage
§14:51 The Goals of the Cross-Examination
§14:52 Consider the Sequence
B. The Sequence of Cross-Examination
§14:60 The Expert’s Bias
§14:61 The Expert’s Lack of Personal Knowledge
§14:62 The Lawyer’s Expertise
§14:63 The Expert’s Lack of Expertise
§14:64 The Problems With the Blood Sample
C. Sample Cross-Examination
§14:70 General Points
§14:71 The Expert’s Bias
§14:72 The Expert’s Lack of Personal Knowledge
§14:73 The Lawyer’s Expertise
§14:74 The Expert’s Lack of Expertise
§14:75 Problems With the Blood Sample
§14:76 Checklist for Attacking Blood Tests
VII. Defending Blood Tests
§14:80 Gas Chromatography Is Good Science
§14:81 Use Business Records
§14:82 Emphasize That Blood Tests Measure Impairment
§14:83 Build the Credibility

Chapter 15: Laboratory Operations
I. General Points
§15:01 Forensic Laboratories
§15:02 Clinical Laboratories
§15:03 Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) Guidelines
II. The Forensic Laboratory
A. Collection of the Specimen
§15:10 Evidence Collection Kits
§15:11 Importance and Regulation of the Collection Process
§15:12 The Collection Procedure
§15:13 Contamination During Collection
§15:14 Checklist of Collection Issues
B. Contamination
§15:20 Contamination by Microorganisms
§15:21 Contamination Produces Alcohol
§15:22 Mixing the Preservative
§15:23 Refrigeration and Sodium Fluoride Levels
§15:24 Determination of Contamination
C. Chain of Custody
§15:30 Documentation
§15:31 Receipt of the Evidence at the Laboratory
§15:32 Storage and Security of the Evidence
D. Analysis and Reporting
§15:40 Analysis of the Evidence
§15:41 Reporting of Results
III. Good Laboratory Practice (GLP)
§15:50 Standard Guidelines
§15:51 The Standard Operating Procedure
§15:52 Quality Assurance (QA)
§15:53 Laboratory Managers
§15:54 Laboratory Analysts
§15:55 Toxicologists

Chapter 16: Laboratory Analysis
I. Determination of the Alcohol Concentration
§16:01 Available Methods
§16:02 Validation of the Method
II. Validation of Instruments
§16:10 General Points
§16:11 Precision and Accuracy
§16:12 Specificity and Selectivity
§16:13 Linearity
§16:14 Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantitation
§16:15 Revalidation
III. Gas Chromatography
A. The Basics of Gas Chromatography
§16:20 The Gas Chromatograph
§16:21 Injection and Separation
§16:22 Detection and Retention Time
§16:23 Preparing the Specimen for Quantitation
§16:24 Calculating the Ethanol Concentration
B. Evaluating the Process
§16:30 The Quality of the Chromatograms
§16:31 Headspace vs. Direct Injection
C. GC Analytical Procedure
§16:40 Preparing the Run
§16:41 Quality Checks in the Run
§16:42 Quality Checks After the Run
D. Discovery
§16:50 Document Review
§16:51 Evaluating the Case Chromatogram
§16:52 Archiving of Raw Data
IV. Enzyme Immunoassay
§16:60 Immunochemical Methods
§16:61 Immunoassay Analysis vs. Gas Chromatography
V. Quality Control Solutions
§16:70 Reference Solutions
§16:71 The Simulator and Simulator Solutions
§16:72 Reagents and Controls
VI. Risk of Error
§16:80 Error Is Unavoidable
§16:81 Checklist of Sources of Error
§16:82 Summary

Chapter 17: Attacking and Defending Urine and Saliva Tests
I. Urine Tests
A. General Points
§17:01 Urine Testing Is Not Accurate
§17:02 States Have Different Approaches
§17:03 Statutes May Not Define a Percentage
B. The Method of Attack
1. Review How the Urine Test Is Disfavored
§17:10 Attack the State’s Expert
§17:11 Most States Do Not Use Urine Testing
§17:12 Scientific Authority Criticizes Urine Testing
2. Challenge the Collection of the Sample
§17:20 Use a Chronological Approach
§17:21 Proper Samples Are Impossible
§17:22 Sample Cross-Examination Regarding the Collection
3. Challenge the Conversion
§17:30 Conversions Require Averages
§17:31 Sample Cross-Examination Regarding the Conversion
II. Saliva Tests
§17:40 Saliva Testing Is Rare
§17:41 Saliva Testing Requires a Conversion
§17:42 Saliva Testing Requires Continuous Observation

Chapter 18: Pretrial Suppression Motions
I. General Points
§18:01 Suppression Motions Can Exclude Evidence
§18:02 Tangential Benefits to Suppression Motions
II. Specific Suppression Motions
A. Illegal Stop
§18:10 Successfully Challenging the Stop Is Generally the Most Beneficial Suppression Motion
§18:11 Case Examples Regarding Weaving
§18:12 Sample Suppression Motions
B. Suppressing a Blood or Breath Test After a Preliminary Screening Device Test
§18:20 Taking a Preliminary Alcohol Screening Device Test Removes Exigent Circumstances
§18:21 Sample Points and Authorities to Suppress a Blood [or Breath] Test
C. Roadblocks
§18:30 Prosecution Must Establish Lawfulness of Roadblock
§18:31 Sample Operational Order for Field Officers
§18:32 Sample Checkpoint Guide for Field Officers
§18:33 General Crime Fighting Is Not an Acceptable Justification
§18:34 Drafting the Motion
§18:35 Sample Motion Challenging a Drunk Driving Checkpoint
D. Tolerance
§18:40 Exclude Evidence of Tolerance
§18:41 Sample Motion to Exclude Evidence of Tolerance
E. Partition Ratio Evidence
§18:50 Look for the Opportunity to Introduce Partition Ratio Evidence
§18:51 Anticipate Strong Opposition
§18:52 Sample Motion to Introduce Partition Ratio Evidence
F. Chemical Test Results
§18:60 Denial of Choice of Test
§18:61 Sample Points and Authorities to Exclude Chemical Test Results Due to the Denial of
Choice of Test
G. Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus Test
§18:70 Limit the Test to Evidence of an Indication of Intoxication
§18:71 Sample Motion Limiting the Use of the Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus Test

Chapter 19: Jury Selection
I. General Points
§19:01 The Presumption of Guilt
§19:02 The Golden Rule
§19:03 Jury Selection Maxims
II. How Jurors Process Information
§19:10 Availability Bias
§19:11 Monocasuality Heuristic
§19:12 Belief Perseverance Bias
§19:13 Life Experience Bias
III. The Defense Theme in Voir Dire
§19:20 Time Is Limited
§19:21 Destroy the Presumption of Guilt
§19:22 Questions That Help Reduce the Bias
§19:22 The “I Will Try” Juror
§19:23 Police Officer Testimony
IV. The Jury Selection System
§19:30 Step One—Identify the Leaders and Followers
§19:31 Step Two—Rate the Potential Jurors
§19:32 Step Three—Decide Who to Strike and in What Order
V. Jury Selection Law
§19:40 Know Your State Law
§19:41 General State Policy
§19:42 Exemptions and Excuses From Service
§19:43 Peace Officer Exemption
§19:44 Number of Jurors
§19:45 Voir Dire
§19:46 Challenges
§19:47 Peremptory Challenges
§19:48 Juror Bias

Chapter 20: Coordinating the Attack in Trial
I. General Points
§20:01 The Challenge of Drunk Driving Cases
§20:02 The Inside Information
§20:03 The Basic Problem
§20:04 The Basic Strategy
§20:05 Checklist for Coordinating the Attack
II. Steps Before Trial
A. General Points
§20:10 It’s a Deuce
§20:11 Prepare the Jury Instructions Before Trial
B. Create a Time Line
§20:20 Know the Facts
§20:21 Discover Problems With the Officer’s Investigation
§20:22 Engage the Jury
C. Visit the Scene
§20:30 Firsthand Knowledge Is Essential
§20:31 Check the Distances and Times
§20:32 Get the Client Involved
§20:33 Photograph the Scene
§20:34 Keep Opposing Witnesses Honest
D. Witness and Discovery Problems
§20:40 Exchanging Witness Lists
§20:41 Subpoenaing Witnesses
§20:42 Keep Your Expert Available
III. The Trial
A. General Points
§20:50 The Pretrial Conference
§20:51 Be Likeable
§20:52 Dress the Client Appropriately
§20:53 Emphasize the Client’s Cooperation
§20:54 Keep it Simple
§20:55 Find a Villain
§20:56 Lay a Foundation and Present the Bad Fact Last
§20:57 Surround the Bad Fact With Good Facts
§20:58 Juxtapose the Bad Fact With Worse Facts
B. Opening Statements
§20:70 An Opening Statement Is a Necessity
§20:71 Get the Defendant’s Story out
§20:72 Discuss the Driving Pattern and the Field Sobriety Tests
§20:73 Explain How the Breath or Blood Test Was Performed
§20:74 Tell the Jury the Result of the Blood Alcohol Test
§20:75 Make the Opening Statement a Defense Rebuttal
§20:76 Tell the Jury What You Want
C. Cross-Examining the State’s Witnesses
1. The Police Officer
a. General Points
§20:80 Begin With Good Points
§20:81 Sometimes Begin With the Hot Topic
§20:82 Sample Beginning Examination on the Hot Topic
§20:83 General Rules to Follow and to Avoid
b. Questions to Ask Arresting Officers
§20:90 Academy Training
§20:91 Video Tape
§20:92 The Written ABC Test
§20:93 Time the Field Sobriety Test Instructions
§20:94 The Arresting Officer Needs Only Probable Cause
§20:95 Things Not in the Police Report
§20:96 Are You Sure?
§20:97 Examine the Arresting Officer’s Eyes
§20:98 Dealing With Claims of Weaving
§20:99 Cross-Examining Two Police Officers
2. The State’s Expert (Seven Step Method)
§20:110 General Points
§20:111 Step 1: The Expert’s Bias
§20:112 Step 2: The Expert’s Lack of Personal Knowledge
§20:113 Step 3: The Expert’s Lack of True Expertise
§20:114 Step 4: Ask Questions Beyond Legitimate Dispute
§20:115 Step 5: Show That Microscopic Measurements Were Made
§20:116 Step 6: Dismantle the Big Hypothetical
§20:117 Step 7: Attack the Widmark Calculations
3. The Screening Device Coordinator
§20:120 General Points
§20:121 Move to Suppress
§20:122 Object to References to the Calibration Solution
§20:123 Watch the Claim of the Calibration Solution Percentage
§20:124 Watch the Observation Period
§20:125 Note the Lack of a Slope Detector
§20:126 Ask for a Jury Instruction
D. Defense Witnesses
1. The Defense Expert
§20:130 Call the Expert First
§20:131 Ask if the Defendant Was Under the Influence
§20:132 Find Areas of Agreement With the State’s Expert
§20:133 Have the Expert Teach About the Tests
2. General Defense Witnesses
§20:140 Find All Potential Witnesses
§20:141 Tell the Truth
§20:142 Establish the Defendant’s Drinking Pattern
§20:143 Describe the Defendant’s Physical Characteristics
§20:144 Describe the Defendant’s Driving
3. The Defendant
§20:150 Should the Defendant Testify?
§20:151 Have the Defendant Testify Last
§20:152 Have the Defendant Take Notes
E. Closing Argument
§20:160 Respond Early to Points Made by the Prosecutor
§20:161 Add Something Beyond a Recitation of the Facts
§20:162 Have the Jury’s Emotion Lead the Argument
§20:163 Exploit Anecdotes the Prosecution Used in Voir Dire
§20:164 Tell the Jury Not to Split Verdicts
§20:165 Consumption of Alcohol Is Not the Same as Being Under the Influence
§20:166 Ask Rhetorical Questions and Look for Note Taking
§20:167 Four Jury Instructions You Need to Argue
§20:168 Things That Help Hang Juries
§20:169 Do Not Argue Reasonable Doubt Until the End

Donald Bartell
Donald Bartell is a partner in the law firm of Bartell & Hensel and has been in private practice for over 20 years. Mr. Bartell is a graduate of the University of California, Berkeley and the University of Notre Dame School of Law. He is on the Board of Directors of the California Deuce Defenders - a statewide DUI defense organization - and he is a frequent lecturer to lawyers from around the state on topics of DUI defense. Mr. Bartell is co-authoring a nationwide book on drunk driving to be completed and published in the near future. He is an editorial consultant for the book California Drunk Driving Law. Mr. Bartell is a pilot and available to handle cases at remote locations by private plane.

My CA Drunk Driving Attorney Colleagues at the
California DUI Lawyers Association

Donald Bartell Board Member -Specialist Member
Bartell Beloian and Hensel
5053 La Mart Drive Suite 201
Riverside, CA 92507
PHONE: 951 788-2230 FAX: 951 788-9162